Фонд Развития Физтех Лицея

Степанцев Павел , 9 класс

Дарвин

Руководитель: Крылова В.В.

Charles Robert Darwin was born on 12 February 1809 at the family home The Mount in the town of Shrewsbury, Shropshire County, England, the fifth of six children born to Dr. Robert Waring Darwin (1766-1848) and Susannah Wedgwood (1765-1817). Charles’ maternal grandfather was the famous potter Josiah Wedgwood (1730-1795); his paternal grandfather physician Erasmus Darwin (1731-1802) who wrote on evolutionary principles in Zoonomia (1794-6). Young Charles was destined to follow in his footsteps, for early on he discovered his love of all things natural and became an avid collector of minerals, shells, and bird eggs, a hobby that would serve him well later in life. Family trips to Wales awakened a never-ending curiosity in him and he would return many times to further his studies in geology and marine and insect life. At the age of eight years old, the same year his mother died, Darwin entered the Unitarian day school run by Rev. G. Case. After a year there he next attended Dr. Samuel Butler’s boarding school in Shrewsbury until 1825. Here Darwin studied the works of Homer, Euclid, Virgil, Horace, William Shakespeare, Lord George Gordon Byron, John Milton, and Sir Walter Scott. While he did not excel in his studies, he did enjoy chemistry and conducting experiments; «This was the best part of my education at school, for it showed me practically the meaning of experimental science». In late 1825 Charles’ father sent his son to Edinburgh University in Scotland to study medicine, hoping he would follow in his footsteps. Darwin found the lectures at school, the Royal Medical Society, and the Wernerian Society in such subjects as anatomy, geology, and zoology tedious and dull, and the surgeries in those pre-chloroform days gruesome, but he loved to be out in the field collecting specimens with fellow students and learned from a black taxidermist how to stuff birds. He spent many autumn days with his favorite Uncle Josiah ‘Jos’, son of Josiah Wedgwood at his home Maer, hunting and fishing. It was at this time that Darwin joined the university’s Plinian Society and read before them a paper about the marine species bryozoan Flustra; he had observed that these «moss animals» had their own cilia and hence were capable of independent movement. It was his first of many discoveries. Later Charles Darwin spent 5 years on a British ship Beagle, visiting coasts and islands in the southern part of the world. The different types of animals and plants that he found, especially on the Galapagos Islands in the Pacific, led him to believe that living things develop differently in different places over a long period of time. Upon his return to England in October of 1836, Darwin was embraced with much esteem by the scientific community including Lyell, American botanist Asa Gray (1810-1888), English botanist Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker (1817-1911), and «Darwin’s Bulldog» English biologist Thomas Henry Huxley (1825-1895). Darwin was elected secretary to the Geological Society of London where he also read several papers including «Erratic boulders of South America» and «On the formation by the agency of earth-worms of mould», which he would revise and publish as The Formation of Vegetable Mould, Through the Action of Worms in 1881. He also had papers published in the Linnean Society’s Journal. Darwin continued his studies on the transmutation of species, geology, barnacles, seeds, and oversaw the editing of several studies and reports based on his specimens. He set to preparing his manuscript for the Voyage. The Structure and Distribution of Coral Reefs was published in 1842. On 29 January 1839 Darwin married his cousin Emma Wedgwood (1808-96), daughter of his Uncle Jos, with whom he would have ten children. The Darwins settled at their home Down House in the village of Downe in Kent County, England. Partly inspired by the birth of his first son William Erasmus (1839-1914), who would become a banker, Expression of the Emotions in Men and Animals was published in 1872. The death of his second child Anne Elizabeth (1841-1851) profoundly grieved Darwin and caused him to lose the little faith he had left in Christianity. (Sir) George Howard Darwin (1845-1912) became an eminent astronomer. Son (Sir) Francis (1848-1925) followed in his father’s footsteps, becoming a noted Professor of Botany at Cambridge. He collaborated with his father in experiments and co-authored The Power of Movement in Plants (1880); he later edited and published Life and Letters of Charles Darwin (1887). He was knighted in 1913. (Major) Leonard Darwin (1850-1943) would join the Royal Engineers and was later president of the Royal Geographical Society. (Sir) Horace Darwin (1851-1928) founded the Cambridge Scientific Instrument Company. Charles Robert Darwin established the theory of evolution, published his findings in On the Origin of Species By Means of Natural Selection; or, the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life (1859); The culmination of years of research and data collection, Darwin’s monumental work represents many fields of science including biology, geology, anatomy, geography, and paleontology. Of course, Darwin’s work was controversial – many of his fellow scientists, also members of the Church of England and creationists rejected his theories outright. There were numerous debates, the most famous one between Darwin’s supporters from the British Association for the Advancement of Science and the Bishop of Oxford. While there have been new developments in the fields of science since, Origin remains the foundation among scientists in explanation of the development and diversity of life.

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Владимир Путин:

" Очень жаль, что у нас исчезли некоторые специализированные школы, которые искали талантливых ребят по всей стране и готовили их по особой программе..."

Источник

Андрей Воробьев, губернатор МО:

"Для нас очень важно, чтобы школы Подмосковья были лучшими в стране и ребята здесь получали достойное образование, реализовывались и творили на благо нашей страны. Здесь великолепный директор школы, потрясающий преподавательский состав. По рейтингу подмосковных школ – Физтех-лицей один из лидеров региона."

Игорь Агамирзян:

"Наконец-то, «Физтех-лицей» получил замечательное новое здание. К тому же, ему присвоили имя великого человека и ученого Петра Капицы. Сегодня МФТИ обзавелся новым источником для своей кадровой базы, а Московская область — новым центром притяжения для талантливых детей, с которых все начинается."

Константин Новоселов, Нобелевский
лауреат:

"Я по-хорошему завидую вам, сегодняшним лицеистам, и вашим родителям, потому что у вас есть возможность учиться у самых лучших преподавателей и студентов МФТИ. Близость к Физтеху и близость к живой науке дают колоссальные возможности. Вы будете учиться передовым знаниям в прекрасно оборудованных экспериментальных классах».

Н.В.Карлов, ректор МФТИ 1987-97 г.г.

Мы задумывали сделать такую школу, где и работать и учиться будет трудно, но интересно, где будет царить дух Физтеха.
А «Физтех» означает думать творчески…
«Физтех» означает вечное стремление к совершенству во всем

Из книги «Я – Физтех»


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